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Babylonia (Iraq), c. 1800–539 BCE

David Kertai

David Kertai is a post-doctoral scholar within the Martin Buber Society of Fellows in the Humanities and Social Sciences at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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Sir Banister Fletcher’s Global History of Architecture Volume 1

Bloomsbury Visual Arts (UK), 2018

Sir Banister Fletcher chapter

...Babylon is located around 90 kilometres (55 miles) south of Baghdad in the alluvial plain between the Euphrates and Tigris rivers, in what was then central Mesopotamia and today is Iraq. The region receives relatively little rain...

Indus Valley (India/Pakistan), c. 2600–1700 BCE

Michael Jansen

Michael Jansen is Professor and Director of the German Research Center Mohenjo-Daro at RWTH Aachen University, Germany, as well as a UNESCO Senior Expert. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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Sir Banister Fletcher’s Global History of Architecture Volume 1

Bloomsbury Visual Arts (UK), 2018

Sir Banister Fletcher chapter

...The time-space distribution of cultures on the Indian subcontinent is complex. One of its two largest rivers, the Indus, was the cradle of Harappan culture, one of the world’s three earliest civilizations in the third millennium BCE....

Assyria (Iraq), c. 1900–612 BCE

David Kertai

David Kertai is a post-doctoral scholar within the Martin Buber Society of Fellows in the Humanities and Social Sciences at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

Search for publications

Sir Banister Fletcher’s Global History of Architecture Volume 1

Bloomsbury Visual Arts (UK), 2018

Sir Banister Fletcher chapter

...The kings of Assur – a city in the north of modern-day Iraq, then in northern Mesopotamia – emerged as one of the major powers of the Middle East in the thirteenth century BCE and came to control the entire region in the seventh century...

Egypt (Middle Kingdom), c. 2050–1650 BCE

Dieter Arnold

Dieter Arnold is an archaeologist and Emeritus Curator of Egyptian Art at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, USA. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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Sir Banister Fletcher’s Global History of Architecture Volume 1

Bloomsbury Visual Arts (UK), 2018

Sir Banister Fletcher chapter

...At the end of the third millennium BCE, the moist Neolithic Period ended in northeastern Africa. Reduced precipitation in Ethiopia caused lower levels for the Nile floods and consequently catastrophic famines in Egypt. This development may...

Hittite Empire (Turkey), c. 1650–1180 BCE

Dirk Paul Mielke

Dirk Paul Mielke is a pre- and proto-historian and Ancient Near Eastern archaeologist researching and teaching at the Freie Universität Berlin and at the Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Germany. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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Sir Banister Fletcher’s Global History of Architecture Volume 1

Bloomsbury Visual Arts (UK), 2018

Sir Banister Fletcher chapter

...Starting out from their homeland in Anatolia, the Hittites established not only an important Ancient Near Eastern empire in the second millennium BCE but also created an idiosyncratic culture. The homeland of the Hittites, the ‘Land...

The Andes (Pre-Ceramic Period to Early Horizon), c. 4000–200 BCE

Andrew James Hamilton

Andrew James Hamilton is a lecturer in the Department of Art and Archaeology at Princeton University, New Jersey, USA. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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Sir Banister Fletcher’s Global History of Architecture Volume 1

Bloomsbury Visual Arts (UK), 2018

Sir Banister Fletcher chapter

...The Andes range was perhaps the world’s most unusual ‘cradle of civilization’. Elsewhere, urbanized human societies developed in protective, fertile river valleyshere people settled a narrow shelf of land between the Pacific Ocean...

Mesoamerica, c. 1500 BCE–500 CE

Mary E. Miller

Mary E. Miller is Sterling Professor of the History of Art at Yale University, USA. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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Matthew H. Robb

Matthew H. Robb is Chief Curator of the Fowler Museum at the University of California, Los Angeles, USA. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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Sir Banister Fletcher’s Global History of Architecture Volume 1

Bloomsbury Visual Arts (UK), 2018

Sir Banister Fletcher chapter

...This chapter addresses the early history (c. 1500 BCE–500 CE) of building forms and cultural concepts in the area of the Western Hemisphere known as Mesoamerica, with particular attention to the Maya region, central Mexico, and the Gulf...

China to c. 256 BCE

Zhengwei Zhang

Zhengwei Zhang is Librarian of the Department of Cultural Heritage & Museology at Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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Sir Banister Fletcher’s Global History of Architecture Volume 1

Bloomsbury Visual Arts (UK), 2018

Sir Banister Fletcher chapter

...The period before the mid-third century BCE was the embryonic stage for Chinese civilization. There were diverse regional civilizations up to about 8,000 years ago, meaning that what we regard as ‘classic’ Chinese cultural formations had...

Minoan Crete and Mycenaean Greece, c. 2650–1190 BCE

Rodney D. Fitzsimons

Rodney D. Fitzsimons is an associate professor in the Department of Anthropology at Trent University in Peterborough, Ontario, Canada. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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Sir Banister Fletcher’s Global History of Architecture Volume 1

Bloomsbury Visual Arts (UK), 2018

Sir Banister Fletcher chapter

...The Bronze Age cultures of Greece are restricted to the southern portion of the Greek mainland, the islands of the south and southeast Aegean and the island of Crete. The entire region is dominated by the sea and the mountains – the latter...

Egypt (New Kingdom to Roman Era), c. 1550 BCE to 641 CE

Dieter Arnold

Dieter Arnold is an archaeologist and Emeritus Curator of Egyptian Art at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, USA. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

Search for publications

Sir Banister Fletcher’s Global History of Architecture Volume 1

Bloomsbury Visual Arts (UK), 2018

Sir Banister Fletcher chapter

...The two millennia or so that constituted the last phase of ancient Egypt, from the New Kingdom onwards, were marked by almost unceasing political challenges, military actions and cultural and religious transformations, with architecture...