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Sumer and Akkad (Iraq), c. 3500–2000 BCE

Harriet Crawford

Harriet Crawford is Reader Emerita at the Institute of Archaeology, University College London, and Senior Fellow at the McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, Cambridge. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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Sir Banister Fletcher’s Global History of Architecture Volume 1

Bloomsbury Visual Arts (UK), 2018

Sir Banister Fletcher chapter

...The marshes and plains of southern Iraq, known as Sumer from about 3000 BCE, were very productive, though the plain needed irrigation before cultivation was possible. The area lacked certain essentials like good-quality stone and strong...

Egypt (Early Dynastic and Old Kingdom), c. 3100–2150 BCE

Dieter Arnold

Dieter Arnold is an archaeologist and Emeritus Curator of Egyptian Art at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, USA. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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Sir Banister Fletcher’s Global History of Architecture Volume 1

Bloomsbury Visual Arts (UK), 2018

Sir Banister Fletcher chapter

...During prehistoric times in Egypt, and certainly from around 5000 BCE onwards, humans entered the Nile valley and began to form settlements there. From this developed one of the greatest ancient cultures of humankind, peaking in what...

Indus Valley (India/Pakistan), c. 2600–1700 BCE

Michael Jansen

Michael Jansen is Professor and Director of the German Research Center Mohenjo-Daro at RWTH Aachen University, Germany, as well as a UNESCO Senior Expert. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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Sir Banister Fletcher’s Global History of Architecture Volume 1

Bloomsbury Visual Arts (UK), 2018

Sir Banister Fletcher chapter

...The time-space distribution of cultures on the Indian subcontinent is complex. One of its two largest rivers, the Indus, was the cradle of Harappan culture, one of the world’s three earliest civilizations in the third millennium BCE....

Egypt (Middle Kingdom), c. 2050–1650 BCE

Dieter Arnold

Dieter Arnold is an archaeologist and Emeritus Curator of Egyptian Art at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, USA. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

Search for publications

Sir Banister Fletcher’s Global History of Architecture Volume 1

Bloomsbury Visual Arts (UK), 2018

Sir Banister Fletcher chapter

...At the end of the third millennium BCE, the moist Neolithic Period ended in northeastern Africa. Reduced precipitation in Ethiopia caused lower levels for the Nile floods and consequently catastrophic famines in Egypt. This development may...

The Andes (Pre-Ceramic Period to Early Horizon), c. 4000–200 BCE

Andrew James Hamilton

Andrew James Hamilton is a lecturer in the Department of Art and Archaeology at Princeton University, New Jersey, USA. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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Sir Banister Fletcher’s Global History of Architecture Volume 1

Bloomsbury Visual Arts (UK), 2018

Sir Banister Fletcher chapter

...The Andes range was perhaps the world’s most unusual ‘cradle of civilization’. Elsewhere, urbanized human societies developed in protective, fertile river valleyshere people settled a narrow shelf of land between the Pacific Ocean...

Minoan Crete and Mycenaean Greece, c. 2650–1190 BCE

Rodney D. Fitzsimons

Rodney D. Fitzsimons is an associate professor in the Department of Anthropology at Trent University in Peterborough, Ontario, Canada. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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Sir Banister Fletcher’s Global History of Architecture Volume 1

Bloomsbury Visual Arts (UK), 2018

Sir Banister Fletcher chapter

...The Bronze Age cultures of Greece are restricted to the southern portion of the Greek mainland, the islands of the south and southeast Aegean and the island of Crete. The entire region is dominated by the sea and the mountains – the latter...

China to c. 256 BCE

Zhengwei Zhang

Zhengwei Zhang is Librarian of the Department of Cultural Heritage & Museology at Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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Sir Banister Fletcher’s Global History of Architecture Volume 1

Bloomsbury Visual Arts (UK), 2018

Sir Banister Fletcher chapter

...The period before the mid-third century BCE was the embryonic stage for Chinese civilization. There were diverse regional civilizations up to about 8,000 years ago, meaning that what we regard as ‘classic’ Chinese cultural formations had...

Northwest Europe to c. 1000 BCE

Lesley McFadyen

Dr Lesley McFadyen teaches in the Department of History, Classics and Archaeology at Birkbeck, University of London, UK. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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Sir Banister Fletcher’s Global History of Architecture Volume 1

Bloomsbury Visual Arts (UK), 2018

Sir Banister Fletcher chapter

...This chapter covers a very long time span, discussing the admittedly scarce evidence from the period called the Mesolithic (‘Middle Stone Age’, c. 9000–4000 BCE) through to the Neolithic (‘New Stone Age’, c. 4000–2000 BCE) and Bronze Age...

The city, humanity and time

Tony Fry

Tony Fry is Director of the sustainment consultancy Team D/E/S and Professor of Design, Griffith University, Queensland College of Art. He is also author of Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Berg, 2008) and Design as Politics (Berg, 2010). Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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Remaking Cities : An Introduction to Urban Metrofitting

Bloomsbury Academic, 2017

Book chapter

...Consideration will now be given to ancient, pre-modern and colonial cities, but why? Do they have any significance to issues of remaking cities and to metrofitting? The answer has to be ‘yes’.Our starting point is to acknowledge...