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Sumer and Akkad (Iraq), c. 3500–2000 BCE

Harriet Crawford

Harriet Crawford is Reader Emerita at the Institute of Archaeology, University College London, and Senior Fellow at the McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, Cambridge. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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Sir Banister Fletcher’s Global History of Architecture Volume 1

© the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) and the University of London, 2019

Sir Banister Fletcher chapter

...The marshes and plains of southern Iraq, known as Sumer from about 3000 BCE, were very productive, though the plain needed irrigation before cultivation was possible. The area lacked certain essentials like good-quality stone and strong...