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Sumer and Akkad (Iraq), c. 3500–2000 BCE

Harriet Crawford

Harriet Crawford is Reader Emerita at the Institute of Archaeology, University College London, and Senior Fellow at the McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, Cambridge. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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Sir Banister Fletcher’s Global History of Architecture Volume 1

Bloomsbury Visual Arts (UK), 2018

Sir Banister Fletcher chapter

...The marshes and plains of southern Iraq, known as Sumer from about 3000 BCE, were very productive, though the plain needed irrigation before cultivation was possible. The area lacked certain essentials like good-quality stone and strong...

The Holy Land (Israel/Palestine/Lebanon/Jordan) and Crusader States, 1095–1489

Denys Pringle

Denys Pringle is Emeritus Professor in the School of History, Archaeology and Religion at Cardiff University, Wales, UK. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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Sir Banister Fletcher’s Global History of Architecture Volume 1

Bloomsbury Visual Arts (UK), 2018

Sir Banister Fletcher chapter

...After the fall of Jerusalem to the First Crusade (1095–99) – which was launched by Pope Urban II to protect the Christians of the eastern Mediterranean from the Seljuq Turks – a Kingdom of Jerusalem and other dependent western Christian...

The Byzantine Empire (Turkey/Mediterranean Rim), 324–1453

Lyn Rodley

Lyn Rodley is an associate lecturer with the Open University and teaches Byzantine art and architecture at Morley College in London. She was previously Helen Waddell Visiting Professor at Queen’s University, Belfast, UK. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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Sir Banister Fletcher’s Global History of Architecture Volume 1

Bloomsbury Visual Arts (UK), 2018

Sir Banister Fletcher chapter

...The Byzantine Empire was the continuation of the Roman Empire with Constantinople (Byzantium) as its capital from 324 CE and the imperial sanction of Christianity. The vast territorial extent of the originally Byzantine Empire, based...

Imperial Rome and the Roman Empire, 31 BCE–c. 284 CE

Janet DeLaine

Janet DeLaine is Associate Professor in Roman Archaeology, University of Oxford, UK, and has published widely on ancient Roman architecture and urbanism. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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Sir Banister Fletcher’s Global History of Architecture Volume 1

Bloomsbury Visual Arts (UK), 2018

Sir Banister Fletcher chapter

...For roughly 300 years, from the defeat of Antony and Cleopatra in 31 BCE by Octavian – later given the title of Augustus – the Roman Empire was continuously under the autocratic rule of the emperor despite often-dramatic regime change which...

Greater Syria and Iraq (Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates), 661–1258

Marcus Milwright

Marcus Milwright is Professor of Islamic Art and Archaeology in the Department of Art History and Visual Studies, University of Victoria, Canada. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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Sir Banister Fletcher’s Global History of Architecture Volume 1

Bloomsbury Visual Arts (UK), 2018

Sir Banister Fletcher chapter

...Greater Syria and Iraq were among the regions conquered by the Arab armies during the seventh century. The former was under the control of the Byzantine Empire and the latter under the rule of the Sasanid shahs. The new monotheistic faith...

Christian Roman Empire, c. 285–480 CE

Thomas N. Howe

Thomas Noble Howe is Professor of Art and Art History and Chair of Art History at Southwestern University in Georgetown, Texas, USA, and also Coordinatore Generale (scientific director for archaeology and masterplanning) for the Fondazione Restoring Ancient Stabiae in Castellammare di Stabia, Italy. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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Sir Banister Fletcher’s Global History of Architecture Volume 1

Bloomsbury Visual Arts (UK), 2018

Sir Banister Fletcher chapter

...Historically the period of the Late Roman Empire was characterized by the re-establishment of stability after the chaos of 235–285 (the so-called ‘third-century crisis’), although on a more rigid social and economic basis and with a great...

The Middle East, 1830–1914

Mohammad al-Asad

Mohammad al-Asad is Founding Director of the Center for the Study of the Built Environment (CSBE) in Amman, Jordan. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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Sir Banister Fletcher’s Global History of Architecture Volume 2

Bloomsbury Visual Arts (UK), 2018

Sir Banister Fletcher chapter

...The Middle East is defined by Turkey (north), Iran (east), Arabian Peninsula (south), and Egypt (west). Between lies the ‘Fertile Crescent’, including modern-day Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, Jordan and Israel/Palestine. From 1830 to 1914...